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Majestic Cat Names: 88 Fabulous Names for Females


Barbara Fitzgerald is an AKC Breeder of Merit and author of the column "Conversations with Champions" for the BCSA magazine, Borderlines.

Choosing Majestic Kitty Names

When naming kitties, it’s important to keep in mind their true status in the realm of animals. Lithe and sleek, cats, both large and small, are the supermodels of the animal kingdom. With their cool stare and sultry stride, it’s no wonder the model’s runway is also called the catwalk.

Here are eighty-eight majestic names for the queen of the jungle, from fashion, film, literature and more. Celebrate your cat's beauty, style and hauty majesty with a befitting moniker. If you feel we have left some fabulous name ideas out, please feel free to add them in the comments section.

Regal Designer Cat Names

Bling or Bling Bling: Fabulous jewelry or eye candy. Bling Bling is a lovely name for an Oriental breed of cat.

Coco or Chanel: Coco Chanel needs no introduction—elegant and inventive, her clothing label remains among the most coveted in the world.

Dovima: Dovima was born Dorothy Virginia Margaret Juba in 1927 in New York City. Half-Polish and half-Irish, she was raised in Jackson Heights, Queens. She contracted rheumatic fever at age ten and was then confined to bed. At that time, the standard treatment was a year in bed, but her strangely overprotective mother kept her home for the next seven years.

During this lonely time, she took up painting and had an imaginary friend, whom she called Dovima—using the first two letters of each of her given names. Discovered by Ford modeling agency outside of an automat in New York, Doe (as she was known by friends and family) took on the persona of her imaginary friend Dovima, becoming the most sophisticated of models in an era of high sophistication.

With Irving Penn in Vogue, she became an overnight sensation. But it was with Avedon that her greatest work was achieved. Dovima and Avedon created the most famous fashion photograph of all time, "Dovima with Elephants," in Paris in 1955. The photo shows Dovima in haute couture with circus elephants surrounding her.

Name your cat Dovima if she bears her sophistication with a slight edge of wistfulness.

Elsa:Famed Tiffany jewelry designer Elsa Peretti or tamed lioness of Born Free—take your choice for your inspiration. Elsa Peretti’s fluid designs have seduced the world with their sensual forms. And Elsa of Born Free charmed the world with her comical exploits as a lion cub and her ultimate rehabilitation into the wild.

Gaga: With her fabulous full-length meat gown, Lady Gaga’s fashion statements would enchant any feline.

Paloma: Spanish for Dove, a tasty tequila cocktail and of course Pablo Picasso’s most famous and creative daughter. Paloma is Tiffany’s delightful designer of bold jewelry designs and her own brand of perfume. If you have a multifaceted cat with many unique talents, name her Paloma.

Prada: Fashion designer Miuccia Prada was born in 1949, in Milan, Italy. Once a member of the Italian Communist Party and (more horribly) a mime student, Prada was an unlikely entrepreneur when she took over her family's luggage business in 1978. She first dazzled the fashion world in the 1980s with a series of black nylon handbags and backpacks. Today, Prada is a billion-dollar company and an excellent name for a sleek, sophisticated black cat.

Miu Miu: Cats and friends alike will understand what you are talking about when your call kitty “Miu Miu.” Of course, that’s Prada’s more affordable fashion line. Naturally, it was named with a nod to the feline.

Valentina: One of the first to be known by merely her first name, Valentina designed dramatic evening gowns for Hollywood’s elite, pioneering the concept of red carpet glamour. Name your kitty Valentina, and you can call her Val or Tina.

Cute Female Cat Names for the Party Animal

Fete: Pronounced Feyt or Fet. A day of celebration or holiday.

Gala: As an adjective it means festive or showy; as a noun it means celebration.

Jubilee: A time or season for rejoicing or the celebration of an anniversary.

Lollapalooza: an extraordinary or unusual thing, person, or event; an exceptional example or instance. Name you cat Lollapalooza and you can call her Lolly, Lolla or Lola.

Spree: A lively frolic or outing, a binge or burst of extreme activity. Purrfect for kittens with unbound energy.

Lash: The characteristic movement of a cat’s tail when annoyed. An excellent name for a haughty cat.

Singing Siamese Kittens

Exotic Cat Names

Bastet or Bast: One of the most popular goddesses of ancient Egypt. She is generally depicted as a cat goddess, although she originally had the head of a lion or a desert sand-cat. In later years she was depicted with the head of a domestic cat. As such, she personified the playfulness, grace, affection, and cunning of a cat as well as the fierce power of a lioness.

Cats were sacred to Bastet, and to harm one was considered a crime against her and very unlucky. Her priests kept sacred cats in her temple, as they were considered to be incarnations of the goddess herself. When these cats died, they were mummified and presented to the goddess as an offering.

The ancient Egyptians placed great value on cats; they protected crops and slowed the spread of disease by killing vermin. Name your kitty Bast or Bastet if you want a protective goddess in your home.

Isis: Egyptian Goddess and patroness of nature and magic. She was the friend of slaves, sinners, artisans, and the downtrodden, and she was also known as protector of the dead and goddess of children.

Geisha: Geishas are professional entertainers trained in the Japanese arts of dance and music and the art of conversation. They attend banquets and dinners to make guests feel at ease in conversation and drinking games and perform traditional Japanese songs and dances. The perfect name for a social kitty.

Maiko: A Japanese girl apprenticing to become a Geisha; typically they are 17 -20 years old. These girls serve green tea and perform songs with the 3-stringed instrument called the shamisen. Once they have mastered the arts of traditional dance and music they may become full-fledged Geishas.

Murasaki: Author and heroine of The Tale of The Genji, the first modern novel, written in the Eleventh Century. In the novel, Murasaki is discovered by the Genji as a 10-year-old girl. He is fascinated by her and kidnaps her to raise her in his own palace and educate her to be his ideal companion. Murasaki means purple or lavender in Japanese and is associated with love and constancy in Japanese poetry.

Kitties Sing at Shower Time

Cute Kitty Names for Noisy Cats

Blare or Blaire: Making a loud or raucous sound.

Cain: Raising Cain.

Fierce: Unruly and determined.

Frolic: Playful.

Glib: Extroverted about one's opinion.

Jolly: Merry or happy mirth maker.

Kibitz: Yiddish in origin, it means to interfere or offer unwanted advice.

Ling Ling:A popular name for Chinese Pandas.

Lively: Active and amusing.

Ming: Chinese Dynasty that ruled for 276 years from 1368–1644, also evil Emperor Ming of planet Mongo in the Flash Gordon series.

Pyewacket: (Pronounced PIE-uh-whack-it) The Siamese cat and witch’s “familiar” in Bell Book and Candle.

Riot: A noisy public disorder; a disturbance of the peace; a brilliant display and/or someone who is hilariously funny. Ideal for quirky Siamese cats!

Saucy: Brash or tart.

Screech: To shriek and a type of owl. Screech makes a good name for a Persian with owl like eyes.

Stormy: Wild and raucous.

Majestic Female Cat Names

The majestic names for female cats come to us from myth and literature. The personalities exemplified by these protagonists are languid and certainly feline in their characters.

Ariel: The Tempest—Ariel is a magical spirit that serves her master, Prospero, in Shakespeare’s The Tempest. Ariel acts as Prospero’s unseen eyes and ears throughout the play and uses her magical abilities to bring about the tempest that sets the play in motion. If you want to pay homage to your kitty’s magical abilities to fly onto counters and eavesdrop unnoticed, name her Ariel.

Austen: Jane Austen is considered by many the greatest novelist of all time. Counted among her classics are Pride and Prejudice, Emma, and Sense and Sensibility.

Blanche: Streetcar Named Desire, main character, and a lovely name for a white cat. Blanche’s mantra, “I have always depended on the kindness of strangers,” speaks volumes to the life of the playwright and that of the kitten raised as a house cat.

Bronte: The three Bronte sisters, Emily, Charlotte and Anne, created classics of literature such as Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights and and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, respectively. Name your kitty Bronte and you can call her Bron for short.

Circe: Greek goddess of magic who transforms her enemies into animals.

Desdemona: Beautiful and faithful wife of Othello the Moor.

Electra: Mourning Becomes Electra, Eugene O’Neil’s Freudian adaptation of the Greek tragedies known as the Oresteia by Aeschylus. The play pays close attention to the Oedipal and Electra complexes. Electra commands the stage with insolent and languid disregard. If your kitty is a haughty mouser consider Electra for her name, and she will keep the male mice at bay.

Esmeralda: Beauty and beloved of Quasimoto, the Hunchback of Notre Dame.

Freya: The most beautiful of the Norse Goddesses.

Helen: Helen of Troy, the most beautiful mortal of her day, known as the face that launched 1000 ships.

Lilith: First wife of Adam, she leaves him to live on her own.

Lucrezia: Lucrezia Borgia, femme fatal and political powerhouse, this noble born woman and daughter of Pope Alexander VI, ruled as governor the Spoleto region of Italy.

Tennessee Williams created some of the greatest female characters in the history of stage. Maligned for being merely men in drag, Williams’ ladies struggled with both contemporary views of proper female etiquette, their limited resources in a male-dominated society and their carnal desires. Name your female cat Tennessee after the great playwright that celebrated women who find a way to succeed.

Maggie (the Cat): Cat on A Hot Tin Roof—the beautiful, frustrated and determined wife of Brick Pollitt, an aging college football hero. Maggie is determined to keep Big Daddy Pollitt’s fortune from being diverted in its entirety to his brother, Gooper, and his little no-neck monsters. If you have a determined kitty, name her Maggie, but try to keep her off of the roof (it gets hot up there).

Stella: Streetcar Named Desire Full of zest for life and an appreciation for Marlon Brando, Stella is the loving survivor. Stella follows her heart, and makes tough choices in determining her future course between her husband and her sister’s needs. If you are seeking a loving kitty with a loyal heart, name her Stella, and you will have fun calling her too.

Stearns: The great poet, Thomas Stearns Eliot, penned Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats, a collection of poems on cats, that was the bases for the Broadway Musical and subsequent films.

Woolf: Who's afraid of Virginia Woolf? Any smart mouse would be, if you name your kitty after this British author. Raised to be free thinking, one of her many notable quotes is, “The eyes of others our prisons; their thoughts our cages.”

Fabulous Female Cat Names From Film and Fiction

Suki Tawdry: Mack the Knife’s associate and likely a lady of the night (like most nocturnal kitties).

Garbo: Elusive and enigmatic Garbo’s reclusive nature embodies the spirit of the cat with strangers. At home with friends she is charming and kittenish, but like any good kitty, in public, she remains mysterious and aloof.

Holly Golightly: Breakfast at Tiffany’s—An American Geisha, Holly Golightly subsists from date to date in the hopes that one will eventually marry her. Charming and delightful, she works her way into everyone’s heart. The perfect name for the stray kitty who works her way into your home.

Lolita: Nabokov’s little Lolita was charmingly kittenish and irresistible to all men.

Marlene: Marlene Dietrich was the embodiment of glamour and exotic looks. In 2008 the New York Times hailed thusly, “Miss Dietrich artfully projected cool sophistication, self-mockery and infinite experience. Her sexuality was audacious, her wit was insolent and her manner was ageless.” Name your cat Marlene to celebrate the ultimate embodiment of the feline.

Naughty Black Cats

Best Unique Names for Black Cats

These cat names, inspired by darkness, make charming monikers for your midnight nightwalker.

Anise: Licorice spice.

Ash or Ashley: Black

Cokie: A charcoal made of coal, coke is used in blast furnaces with iron ore to make steel. A great name for a steely eyed black cat.

Darkness

Ebony: Black

Eclipse

Elvira: Campy Mistress of the Dark and host of Movie Macabre.

Fanta: Character in Roots.

Goth

Jet: Black

Luna: The Latin name for the moon. An excellent name for a black cat with a small spot or two of white.

Maui: Hawaiian Island with black sand beaches.

Masai: African tribe known for the statuesque builds and graceful walk.

Nix: The beautiful Greek Goddess of Darkness, she is rarely glimpsed near the edge of night. Name your shy dark cat Nix.

Omen: Foreshadowing.

Onyx: Black gemstone.

Pepper: Black Spice.

Raven: Ominous black bird.

Rune

Shade

Sloe: Black

Zulu: African Tribe

Need More Inspiration for Your Cat's Name?

  • 100+ Unique Names for Cats With Blue Eyes
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  • Unique Kitty Names | 40 Magical Names for Cats
    Over 40 unique magical cat name ideas from Magick, film, TV, literature, history and ancient mythology. Name your kitty a magical name to bring good fortune and prosperity to your household!
  • 22+ Killer Cat Names for Female Cats
    If you would like to pay homage to your new kitty’s killer instinct, here are some whimsical cat names for females from film and mythology that embrace the killer concept.

MJ on July 14, 2020:

I'm thinking of getting a female tuxedo cat. Names I'm considering are Luna, Minx, Prudence or Muse. Which do you like best?

Shelley on October 10, 2019:

I like the name Pebbles for a torti or calico.

[email protected] on July 10, 2019:

I would like a nice cat name for a male and a female

Marcella on January 04, 2019:

I have rescued 3 kittens recently and have an independent precious female thats very dramatic and i think Stella is the right name.

Jill Tincher on September 29, 2018:

I named my female kitty kimmy

Zenia on July 06, 2018:

Means "strange" in Greek. My cat was found dumped in the forest, and I know nothing of her past or her breed.

Vixin on December 20, 2016:

I have two new kitties and there is soo much names to choose from.

Hawk on December 19, 2016:

Named my female Gypsy. She is black and white (tuxedo )

She was 8 weeks when she traveled thru the woods up to our house (we live down a long gravel drive)

Gypsy's r known to travel and tinker and so the name Gypsy fits my lil one

Priceless Scruffy Fox on March 25, 2016:

My two cute cats are called Furby, (the Russian blue) and Mittens,(the British-bi-colour

Michaela Gibson from Greenville NC on July 31, 2013:

You should name your cat dog.. your dog bird.. your bird cat... and your horse tree. Nailed it. :)

Barbara Fitzgerald (author) from Georgia on July 31, 2013:

Hi Christin53 - those were very cute names for your kitties! you need to get some more so you can name them posh names lol

Ann-Christin from UK on July 31, 2013:

Some very nice names and some quite posh too. I used to have cats my 3 females were called Frisky(the ginger one) Gizmo(the black one)and Mittens because she was a Torty and had 4 white mittens.


Contents

  • 1 Naming and etymology
  • 2 Taxonomy and evolution
    • 2.1 Subspecies
    • 2.2 Evolution
  • 3 Characteristics
  • 4 Distribution and habitat
    • 4.1 Habitat fragmentation
  • 5 Behavior and ecology
    • 5.1 Hunting and diet
    • 5.2 Reproduction and life cycle
    • 5.3 Social structure and home range
  • 6 Threats
  • 7 Conservation status
  • 8 Relationships with humans
    • 8.1 Attacks on humans
      • 8.1.1 In North America
      • 8.1.2 In South America
    • 8.2 Livestock predation
    • 8.3 Predation on dogs
    • 8.4 In mythology
    • 8.5 In sports
  • 9 Hybrids
  • 10 See also
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 References
  • 13 Further reading
  • 14 External links

The word cougar is borrowed from the Portuguese çuçuarana, via French it was originally derived from the Tupi language. A current form in Brazil is suçuarana. [3] In the 17th century, Georg Marcgrave named it cuguacu ara. Marcgrave's rendering was reproduced in 1648 by his associate Willem Piso. Cuguacu ara was then adopted by John Ray in 1693. [4] In 1774, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon converted cuguacu ara to cuguar, which was later modified to "cougar" in English. [5] [6] [7]

"Puma" is the common name used in Latin America and most parts of Europe. The term puma is also used in the United States. [8] [9] [10] [11] The first use of puma in English dates to 1777, introduced from Spanish, and prior from the Quechua language in the 16th century, where it means "powerful". [12]

In the western United States and Canada, it is also called "mountain lion", a name first used in writing in 1858. [13] Other names include "panther", "painter" and "catamount". [14] [15] Early Spanish explorers of the Americas called it gato montés (meaning "cat of the mountain"), and león (meaning "lion"). [14]

The cougar holds the Guinness record for the animal with the greatest number of names, with over 40 in English alone. [16]

Felis concolor was the scientific name proposed by Carl Linnaeus in 1771 for a cat with a long tail from Brasilia. [17] The second half of the name, "concolor" is Latin for "of uniform color". It was placed in the genus Puma by William Jardine in 1834. [18] This genus is part of the Felinae. [2] The cougar is most closely related to the jaguarundi, as well as the modern cheetah of Africa and western Asia. [19] [20]

Subspecies

Following Linnaeus' first scientific description of the cougar, 32 cougar zoological specimens were described and proposed as subspecies until the late 1980s. Genetic analysis of cougar mitochondrial DNA indicate that many of these are too similar to be recognized as distinct at a molecular level, but that only six phylogeographic groups exist. The Florida panther samples showed a low microsatellite variation, possibly due to inbreeding. [20] Following this research, the authors of Mammal Species of the World recognized the following six subspecies in 2005: [2]

  • P. c. concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) includes the synonymsbangsi, incarum, osgoodi, soasoaranna, sussuarana, soderstromii, suçuaçuara, and wavula
  • P. c. puma (Molina, 1782) includes the synonyms araucanus, concolor, patagonica, pearsoni, and puma (Trouessart, 1904)
  • P. c. couguar (Kerr, 1792) includes arundivaga, aztecus, browni, californica, floridana, hippolestes, improcera, kaibabensis, mayensis, missoulensis, olympus, oregonensis, schorgeri, stanleyana, vancouverensis, and youngi
  • P. c. costaricensis (Merriam, 1901)
  • P. c. anthonyi (Nelson and Goldman, 1931) includes acrocodia, borbensis, capricornensis, concolor, greeni, and nigra
  • P. c. cabreraePocock, 1940 includes hudsonii and puma proposed by Marcelli in 1922

In 2006, the Florida panther was still referred to as a distinct subspecies P. c. coryi in research works. [21]

As of 2017 [update] , the Cat Classification Taskforce of the Cat Specialist Group recognizes only two subspecies as valid: [22]

  • P. c. concolor in South America, possibly excluding the region northwest of the Andes
  • P. c. couguar in North and Central America and possibly northwestern South America

Evolution

The family Felidae is believed to have originated in Asia about 11 million years ago. Taxonomic research on felids remains partial, and much of what is known about their evolutionary history is based on mitochondrial DNA analysis. [19] Significant confidence intervals exist with suggested dates. In the latest genomic study of the Felidae, the common ancestor of today's Leopardus, Lynx, Puma, Prionailurus, and Felis lineages migrated across the Bering land bridge into the Americas 8.0 to 8.5 million years ago (Mya). The lineages subsequently diverged in that order. [19] North American felids then invaded South America 2–4 Mya as part of the Great American Interchange, following the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. [20] but the relationship is unresolved. The cheetah lineage is suggested by some studies to have diverged from the Puma lineage in the Americas and migrated back to Asia and Africa, [19] [20] while other research suggests the cheetah diverged in the Old World itself. [23] A high level of genetic similarity has been found among North American cougar populations, suggesting they are all fairly recent descendants of a small ancestral group. Culver et al. propose the original North American cougar population was extirpated during the Pleistocene extinctions some 10,000 years ago, when other large mammals, such as Smilodon, also disappeared. North America was then repopulated by South American cougars. [20]

A coprolite identified as from a cougar was excavated in Argentina's Catamarca Province and dated to 17,002–16,573 years old. It contained Toxascaris leonina eggs. This finding indicates that the cougar and the parasite existed in South America since at least the Late Pleistocene. [24]

The head of the cat is round and the ears are erect. Its powerful forequarters, neck, and jaw serve to grasp and hold large prey. It has five retractable claws on its forepaws (one a dewclaw) and four on its hind paws. The larger front feet and claws are adaptations to clutching prey. [26]

Cougars are slender and agile members of the Felidae. They are the fourth-largest cat species worldwide [27] adults stand about 60 to 90 cm (24 to 35 in) tall at the shoulders. [28] Adult males are around 2.4 m (7.9 ft) long from nose to tail tip, and females average 2.05 m (6.7 ft), with overall ranges between 1.50 to 2.75 m (4.9 to 9.0 ft) nose to tail suggested for the species in general. [29] [30] Of this length, the tail typically accounts for 63 to 95 cm (25 to 37 in). [31] Males generally weigh 53 to 100 kg (117 to 220 lb), averaging 68 kg (150 lb). Females typically weigh between 29 and 64 kg (64 and 141 lb), averaging 55 kg (121 lb). [32] [31] [33] [34] Cougar size is smallest close to the equator and larger towards the poles. [35] The largest recorded cougar, shot in 1901, weighed 105.2 kg (232 lb) claims of 125.2 kg (276 lb) and 118 kg (260 lb) have been reported, though they were most likely exaggerated. [36] On average, adult male cougars in British Columbia weigh 56.7 kg (125 lb) and adult females 45.4 kg (100 lb), though several male cougars in British Columbia weighed between 86.4 and 95.5 kg (190 and 211 lb). [37]

Depending on the locality, cougars can be smaller or bigger than jaguars, but are less muscular and not as powerfully built, so their weight is, on average, less. Whereas cougars tend to be larger as distance increases from the equator, [35] which crosses the northern portion of South America, jaguars are simply generally smaller north of the Amazon River in South America and larger south of it. For example, while South American jaguars are comparatively large, and may exceed 90 kg (200 lb), [38] those in Mexico's Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve weigh about the same as female cougars (approximately 50 kg (110 lb)). [39]

The cougar is, on average, larger than all other extant felid species, aside from the lion, tiger, and jaguar. Despite its size, it is not typically classified among the "big cats" because it cannot roar, lacking the specialized larynx and hyoid apparatus of Panthera. [40] Compared to "big cats", cougars are often silent, with minimal communication through vocalizations outside of the mother-offspring relationship. [41] Cougars sometimes voice low-pitched hisses, growls, and purrs, as well as chirps and whistles, many of which are comparable to those of domestic cats. They are well known for their screams, as referenced in some of their common names, although these screams are often misinterpreted to be the calls of other animals or humans. [42]

Cougar coloring is plain (hence the Latin concolor in the scientific name), but can vary greatly across individuals, and even siblings. The coat is typically tawny like that of the lion (the etymology for the common name "mountain lion" [33] ), but it otherwise ranges from silvery-grey or reddish with lighter patches on the underbody, including the jaws, chin, and throat. Infants are spotted and born with blue eyes and rings on their tails [33] juveniles are pale and dark spots remain on their flanks. [30] Despite anecdotes to the contrary, all-black coloring (melanism) has never been documented in cougars. [43] The term "black panther" is used colloquially to refer to melanistic individuals of other species, particularly jaguars and leopards. [44] A leucistic individual was seen in Serra dos Órgãos National Park in Rio de Janeiro in 2013 when it was recorded by way of a camera trap, indicating that extremely rare, pure white individual cougars do exist in the species. [45]

The cougar has large paws and proportionally the largest hind legs in Felidae, [33] allowing for its great leaping and short-sprint ability. It is capable of leaping from the ground up to 5.5 m high into a tree. [46]

The cougar has the largest range of any wild land animal in the Americas. Its range spans 110 degrees of latitude, from the northern Yukon Territory in Canada to the southern Andes. Its wide distribution stems from its adaptability to virtually every habitat type it lives in all forest types, as well as in lowland and mountainous deserts, as well as in open areas with little vegetation. [1] In the Santa Ana Mountains, it prefers steep canyons, escarpments, rim rocks, and dense brush. [47]

The cougar was extirpated across most of its eastern North American range (with a notable exception of Florida) in the two centuries after European colonization, and faced grave threats elsewhere. It currently ranges across most western American states including occasional sightings from Alaska, the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, and the Canadian territory of Yukon. There have been widely debated reports of possible recolonization of eastern North America. [48] DNA evidence has suggested its presence in eastern North America, [49] while a consolidated map of cougar sightings shows numerous reports from the mid-western Great Plains through to eastern Canada. [50] The Quebec wildlife services also considers cougars to be present in the province as a threatened species after multiple DNA tests confirmed cougar hair in lynx mating sites. [51] The only unequivocally known eastern population is the critically endangered Florida panther. There have been unconfirmed sightings in Elliotsville Plantation, Maine (north of Monson) and as early as 1997 in New Hampshire. [52] In 2009, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources confirmed a cougar sighting in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. [53] Typically, extreme-range sightings of cougars involve young males, which can travel great distances to establish ranges away from established males. All four confirmed cougar kills in Iowa since 2000 involved males. [54]

On April 14, 2008, police fatally shot a cougar on the north side of Chicago, Illinois. DNA tests were consistent with cougars from the Black Hills of South Dakota. Less than a year later, on March 5, 2009, a cougar was photographed and unsuccessfully tranquilized by state wildlife biologists in a tree near Spooner, Wisconsin, in the northwestern part of the state. [55] Other eastern sightings since 2010 have occurred in locations such as Greene County, Indiana, [56] Greenwich [57] and Milford, Connecticut, [58] Morgan County [59] Pike County, [60] and Whiteside County, Illinois, [61] and Bourbon County, Kentucky. [62]

In Tennessee, no confirmed sightings had been made since the early 1900s. The first confirmed sighting in a century was made on September 20, 2015, in Obion county in the north-western corner of West Tennessee. Six days later, and about 56 km (35 mi) to the southeast, a hair sample was found in Carroll County. DNA analysis revealed that it was from a female genetically similar to South Dakota cougars. Since then there have been at least eight additional confirmed sightings in the state all were immediately east of the Tennessee River in Middle Tennessee: initially in Humphreys county and on September 4, 2016, further south in Wayne county. [63]

South of the Rio Grande, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists the cat in every Central and South American country. [1] While specific state and provincial statistics are often available in North America, much less is known about the cat in its southern range. [64]

The cougar's total breeding population is estimated at less than 50,000 by the IUCN, with a declining trend. [1] US state-level statistics are often more optimistic, suggesting cougar populations have rebounded. In Oregon, a healthy population of 5,000 was reported in 2006, exceeding a target of 3,000. [65] California has actively sought to protect the cat and has an estimated population of 4,000 to 6,000. [66]

A 2012 study using 18 motion-sensitive cameras in Río Los Cipreses National Reserve counted a population of two males and two females (one of them with at least two cubs) in an area of 600 km 2 (0.63 cougars per 100 km 2 ). [67] The Bay Area Puma Project aims to obtain information on cougar populations in the San Francisco Bay area and the animals' interactions with habitat, prey, humans, and residential communities. [68]

It is speculated and believed by many that cougars from the western U.S. are recolonizing the eastern cougar's former range in the northeastern United States, and there is growing evidence that supports this claim, indicating a small but growing population of western cougars in the northeastern states, mostly cougars migrating from the midwestern United States, though possibly also from Canada. In April 1997, an experienced tracker named John McCarter found the mauled carcass of a beaver with scat nearby in the Quabbin Reservoir in Massachusetts. The scat was tested positive as being from a mountain lion. In March 2011, Steve Ward, a DCR forester in the state of Massachusetts, photographed tracks in the Quabbin Reservoir. The tracks are believed to have been made by the same mountain lion that was seen in Minnesota, Michigan, upstate New York, and Connecticut, before later being struck by an SUV and killed in Connecticut on a highway that same year. The animal is believed to have originated from the Black Hills of South Dakota. [69] Mountain lions are well documented in the state of Wisconsin, with several confirmed sightings with photo and video evidence being as recent as August 13, 2019, with many other sightings earlier that year and during the previous year of 2018. [70]

Habitat fragmentation

With the increase of human development and infrastructure growth in California, the cougar populations in the state are becoming more isolated from one another. [71]

Aside from humans, no species preys upon mature cougars in the wild, although conflicts with other predators or scavengers occur. Of the large predators in Yellowstone National Park – the grizzly bear, the black bear, the gray wolf, and the cougar – the massive grizzly bear appears dominant, often (but not always) able to drive a gray wolf pack, a black bear, and a cougar off their kills. One study found that grizzlies and American black bears visited 24% of cougar kills in Yellowstone and Glacier National Parks, usurping 10% of carcasses. Bears gained up to 113% and cougars lost up to 26% of their respective daily energy requirements from these encounters. [72] In Colorado and California, black bears were found to visit 48% and 77% of kills, respectively. In general, cougars are subordinate to black bears when it comes to kills and when bears are most active, the cats take prey more frequently and spend less time feeding on each kill. Unlike several subordinate predators from other ecosystems, cougars do not appear to take advantage of spatial or temporal refuges to avoid their competitors. [73] [74]

The gray wolf and the cougar compete more directly for prey, mostly in winter. Packs of wolves can steal cougars' kills, and there are some documented cases of cougars being killed by them. One report describes a large pack of 7 to 11 wolves killing a female cougar and her kittens, [75] while in nearby Sun Valley, Idaho, a 2-year-old male cougar was found dead, apparently killed by wolf pack. [76] Conversely, one-to-one confrontations tend to be dominated by the cat, and there are various documented accounts where wolves have been ambushed and killed, [77] [78] [79] [80] including adult male specimens. [81] Wolves more broadly affect cougar population dynamics and distribution by dominating territory and prey opportunities, and disrupting the feline's behavior. Preliminary research in Yellowstone, for instance, has shown displacement of the cougar by wolves. [82] One researcher in Oregon noted: "When there is a pack around, cougars are not comfortable around their kills or raising kittens [. ] A lot of times a big cougar will kill a wolf, but the pack phenomenon changes the table." [83]

Both species are capable of killing mid-sized predators, such as bobcats, Canada lynx, wolverines and coyotes, and tend to suppress their numbers. [84] Although cougars can kill coyotes, the latter have been documented attempting to prey on cougar cubs. [85]

Although it is less specialized than other big cats in predation of crocodilians, a case in Florida was documented in 2008 where a cougar hunted a sub-adult specimen of American alligator 2.69 meters long [86] (the largest registered crocodilian taken by a cougar), which suggests the ability of large cougars to prey on similar sized specimens of the remaining big crocodilian species with which they share habitat in different parts of the Americas (American crocodile, black caiman and Orinoco crocodile). However, adult specimens of the reptiles are big enough to prey on cougars in return if they have the chance, which occurs only on rare occasions as the cougars tend to avoid bodies of water where crocodilians are present. However, there are documented cases of adult American alligators preying on cougars in Florida. [87] Although there were no documented cases as of 2012, the invasive Burmese python, which can reach 20 feet in length, has reduced Everglades populations of mammals and could pose a threat to the endangered Florida panther. [88]

In the southern portion of its range, the cougar and jaguar share overlapping territory. [89] The jaguar tends to take the larger prey where ranges overlap, reducing both the cougar's potential size and the likelihood of direct competition between the two cats. [35] Cougars appear better than jaguars at exploiting a broader prey niche and smaller prey. [90]

As with any predator at or near the top of its food chain, the cougar impacts the population of prey species. Predation by cougars has been linked to changes in the species mix of deer in a region. For example, a study in British Columbia observed that the population of mule deer, a favored cougar prey, was declining while the population of the less frequently preyed-upon white-tailed deer was increasing. [91] The Vancouver Island marmot, an endangered species endemic to one region of dense cougar population, has seen decreased numbers due to cougar and gray wolf predation. [92] Nevertheless, there is a measurable effect on the quality of deer populations by puma predation. [93] [94]

In the southern part of South America, the cougar is a top-level predator that has controlled the population of guanaco and other species since prehistoric times. [95] Cougars also prey on bear cubs. [96]

Hunting and diet

A successful generalist predator, the cougar will eat any animal it can catch, from insects to large ungulates (over 500 kg (1,100 lb)). Like other cats, it is an obligate carnivore, meaning it must feed on meat to survive. The mean weight of vertebrate prey (MWVP) that pumas attack increases with the puma's body weight in general, MWVP is lower in areas closer to the equator. [35] Its most important prey species are various deer species, particularly in North America mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, and even bull moose are taken. Other species taken include the bighorn and Dall's sheep, horses, fallow deer, caribou, mountain goat, coyote, American badger and pronghorn. [97] A survey of North America research found 68% of prey items were ungulates, especially deer. Only the Florida panther showed variation, often preferring feral hogs and armadillos. [35]

Investigations at Yellowstone National Park showed that elk, followed by mule deer, were the cougar's primary targets the prey base is shared with the park's gray wolves, with which the cougar competes for resources. [84] Another study on winter kills (November–April) in Alberta showed that ungulates accounted for greater than 99% of the cougar diet. Learned, individual prey recognition was observed, as some cougars rarely killed bighorn sheep, while others relied heavily on the species. [98]

In Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, scat samples showed raccoons to make up 28% of the cougar's diet, harbor seals and blacktail deer 24% each, North American river otters 10%, California sea lion 7%, and American mink 4% the remaining 3% were unidentified. [99]

In the Central and South American cougar range, the ratio of deer in the diet declines. Small to mid-sized mammals are preferred, including large rodents such as the capybara. Ungulates accounted for only 35% of prey items in one survey, about half that of North America. Competition with the larger jaguar in South America has been suggested for the decline in the size of prey items. [35] However, a study by Gutiérrez-González and López-González showed that the cougar and jaguar in Central or North America may share the same prey, depending on its abundance. [100] Other listed prey species of the cougar include mice, porcupines, beavers, raccoons, hares, guanaco, peccary, vicuna, rhea, and wild turkey. [101] Birds and small reptiles are sometimes preyed upon in the south, but this is rarely recorded in North America. [35]

In Patagonia's Monte León National Park, the local cougar population has specialized on hunting penguins. [102]

Although capable of sprinting, the cougar is typically an ambush predator. It stalks through brush and trees, across ledges, or other covered spots, before delivering a powerful leap onto the back of its prey and a suffocating neck bite. The cougar is capable of breaking the neck of some of its smaller prey with a strong bite and momentum bearing the animal to the ground. [26] Kills are generally estimated around one large ungulate every two weeks. The period shrinks for females raising young, and may be as short as one kill every three days when cubs are nearly mature around 15 months. [33] The cat drags a kill to a preferred spot, covers it with brush, and returns to feed over a period of days. The cougar is generally reported to not be a scavenger, but deer carcasses left exposed for study were scavenged by cougars in California, suggesting more opportunistic behavior. [103]

Reproduction and life cycle

Females reach sexual maturity between one-and-a-half to three years of age. They typically average one litter every two to three years throughout their reproductive lives, [104] though the period can be as short as one year. [33] Females are in estrus for about 8 days of a 23-day cycle the gestation period is approximately 91 days. [33] Females are sometimes reported as monogamous, [105] but this is uncertain and polygyny may be more common. [106] Copulation is brief but frequent. Chronic stress can result in low reproductive rates when in captivity as well as in the field. [107]

Only females are involved in parenting. Litter size is between one and six cubs typically two. Caves and other alcoves that offer protection are used as litter dens. Born blind, cubs are completely dependent on their mother at first, and begin to be weaned at around three months of age. As they grow, they begin to go out on forays with their mother, first visiting kill sites, and after six months beginning to hunt small prey on their own. [104] Kitten survival rates are just over one per litter. [33] Newborn cougars have spots that fade and eventually disappear by the age of 2 1/2 years. [108] Juveniles remain with their mothers at least for two years. [109]

Young adults leave their mother to attempt to establish their own territories at around two years of age and sometimes earlier males tend to leave sooner. One study has shown high mortality amongst cougars that travel farthest from the maternal range, often due to conflicts with other cougars (intraspecific competition). [104] Research in New Mexico has shown that "males dispersed significantly farther than females, were more likely to traverse large expanses of non-cougar habitat, and were probably most responsible for nuclear gene flow between habitat patches." [110]

Life expectancy in the wild is reported at eight to 13 years, and probably averages eight to 10 a female of at least 18 years was reported killed by hunters on Vancouver Island. [33] Cougars may live as long as 20 years in captivity. Causes of death in the wild include disability and disease, competition with other cougars, starvation, accidents, and, where allowed, human hunting. Feline immunodeficiency virus, an endemic HIV-like virus in cats, is well-adapted to the cougar. [111]

Social structure and home range

Like almost all cats, the cougar is a mostly solitary animal. Only mothers and kittens live in groups, with adults meeting rarely. While generally loners, cougars will reciprocally share kills with one another and seem to organize themselves into small communities defined by the territories of dominant males. Cats within these areas socialize more frequently with each other than with outsiders. [112] Estimates of territory sizes for cougars vary greatly. Canadian Geographic reports large male territories of 150 to 1000 km 2 (58 to 386 sq mi) with female ranges half that size. [105] Other research suggests a much smaller lower limit of 25 km 2 (10 sq mi), but an even greater upper limit of 1300 km 2 (500 sq mi) for males. [104] In the United States, very large ranges have been reported in Texas and the Black Hills of the northern Great Plains, in excess of 775 km 2 (300 sq mi). [113] Male ranges may include or overlap with those of females but, at least where studied, not with those of other males, which reduces conflict between cougars. Ranges of females may overlap slightly with each other. Scrape marks, urine, and feces are used to mark territory and attract mates. Males may scrape together a small pile of leaves and grasses and then urinate on it as a way of marking territory. [114]

Home range sizes and overall cougar abundance depend on terrain, vegetation, and prey abundance. [104] One female adjacent to the San Andres Mountains was found with a large range of 215 km 2 (83 sq mi), necessitated by poor prey abundance. [110] Research has shown cougar abundances from 0.5 animals to as many as 7 (in one study in South America) per 100 km 2 (39 sq mi). [33]

Because males disperse farther than females and compete more directly for mates and territory, they are more likely to be involved in conflict. Where a juvenile fails to leave his maternal range, for example, he may be killed by his father. [113] When males encounter each other, they hiss, spit, and may engage in violent conflict if neither backs down. [106] Hunting or relocation of the cougar may increase aggressive encounters by disrupting territories and bringing young, transient animals into conflict with established individuals. [115]

The cougar is threatened by habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and depletion of its prey base due to poaching. In Florida, it is threatened by heavy traffic, which causes frequent fatal accidents involving cougars. Highways are a major barrier for dispersal of cougars. [1]

The cougar is listed as least concern on the IUCN Red List since 2008. It is also listed on CITES Appendix II. [1] Hunting it is prohibited in California, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, French Guiana, Suriname, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and most of Argentina. [33] Establishing wildlife corridors and protecting sufficient range areas are critical for the sustainability of cougar populations. Research simulations showed that it faces a low extinction risk in areas, which are larger than 2,200 km 2 (850 sq mi). Between one and four new individuals entering a population per decade markedly increases persistence, thus highlighting the importance of habitat corridors. [116]

In the United States east of the Mississippi River, the only unequivocally known cougar population is the Florida panther. Until 2011, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) recognized both an Eastern cougar (claimed to be a subspecies by some, denied by others) [117] [118] and the Florida panther, affording protection under the Endangered Species Act. [119] [120] In 2003, the documented count for the Florida sub-population was 87 individuals. [121] In March 2011, the USFWS declared the Eastern cougar extinct. With the taxonomic uncertainty about its existence as a subspecies as well as the possibility of eastward migration of cougars from the western range, the subject remains open. [122] [123]

This uncertainty has been recognized by Canadian authorities. The Canadian federal agency called Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada rates its current data as "insufficient" to draw conclusions regarding the eastern cougar's survival and its website says that "despite many sightings in the past two decades from eastern Canada, there are insufficient data to evaluate the taxonomy or assign a status to this cougar." Notwithstanding numerous reported sightings in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, it has been said that the evidence is inconclusive as "there may not be a distinct 'eastern' subspecies, and some sightings may be of escaped pets." [124] [125] [126]

Regulated cougar hunting is still common in the United States and Canada. Although cougars are protected from all hunting in the Yukon hunting is permitted in every U.S. state except California from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. The cougar cannot be legally killed without a permit in California except under very specific circumstances, such as when a cougar is in act of pursuing livestock or domestic animals, or is declared a threat to public safety. [66]

Texas is the only U.S. state with a viable cougar population that is not protected. In Texas, the cougar is considered as nuisance wildlife and any person holding a hunting or a trapping permit can kill a cougar regardless of the season, number killed, sex or age of the animal. [127] The non-profit organization Balanced Ecology Inc. launched the Texas Mountain Lion Conservation Project in 2009. The project aims at raising awareness of local people about the status and ecological role of the cougar, and mitigating conflict between landowners and cougars. [128]

Attacks on humans

In North America

The pertinent North American subspecies is P. concolor couguar. Due to the expanding human population, cougar ranges increasingly overlap with areas inhabited by humans. Attacks on humans are very rare, as cougar prey recognition is a learned behavior and they do not generally recognize humans as prey. [129] In a 10-year study in New Mexico of wild cougars who were not habituated to humans, the animals did not exhibit threatening behavior to researchers who approached closely (median distance=18.5 m 61 feet) except in 6% of cases 14/16 of those were females with cubs. [130] Attacks on people, livestock, and pets may occur when a puma habituates to humans or is in a condition of severe starvation. Attacks are most frequent during late spring and summer, when juvenile cougars leave their mothers and search for new territory. [25]

Between 1890 and 1990, in North America there were 53 reported, confirmed attacks on humans, resulting in 48 nonfatal injuries and 10 deaths of humans (the total is greater than 53 because some attacks had more than one victim). [131] By 2004, the count had climbed to 88 attacks and 20 deaths. [132]

Within North America, the distribution of attacks is not uniform. The heavily populated state of California saw a dozen attacks 1986 to 2004 (after just three from 1890 to 1985), including three fatalities. [66] Washington state was the site of a fatal attack in 2018, its first since 1924. [133] Lightly populated New Mexico reported an attack in 2008, the first there since 1974. [134]

As with many predators, a cougar may attack if cornered, if a fleeing human stimulates their instinct to chase, or if a person "plays dead". Standing still may cause the cougar to consider a person easy prey. [135] Exaggerating the threat to the animal through intense eye contact, loud shouting, and any other action to appear larger and more menacing, may make the animal retreat. Fighting back with sticks and rocks, or even bare hands, is often effective in persuading an attacking cougar to disengage. [129] [25]

When cougars do attack, they usually employ their characteristic neck bite, attempting to position their teeth between the vertebrae and into the spinal cord. Neck, head, and spinal injuries are common and sometimes fatal. [129] Children are at greatest risk of attack, and least likely to survive an encounter. Detailed research into attacks prior to 1991 showed that 64% of all victims – and almost all fatalities – were children. The same study showed the highest proportion of attacks to have occurred in British Columbia, particularly on Vancouver Island where cougar populations are especially dense. [131] Preceding attacks on humans, cougars display aberrant behavior, such as activity during daylight hours, a lack of fear of humans, and stalking humans. There have sometimes been incidents of pet cougars mauling people. [136] [137]

Research on new wildlife collars may be able to reduce human-animal conflicts by predicting when and where predatory animals hunt. This may save the lives of humans, pets, and livestock as well as the lives of these large predatory mammals that are important to the balance of ecosystems. [138]

In South America

Pumas in the Southern cone of America – often called Argentine cougars by North Americans – are reputed to be extremely reluctant to attack man in legend, they defended people against jaguars. [139] The nineteenth century naturalists Félix de Azara [140] and William Henry Hudson [141] thought that attacks on people, even children or sleeping adults, did not happen. Hudson, citing anecdotal evidence from hunters, claimed that pumas were positively inhibited from attacking people, even in self-defense. In fact, attacks on humans, although exceedingly rare, have occurred. [142] [143]

An early, authenticated, non-fatal case occurred near Lake Viedma, Patagonia in 1877 when a female mauled the Argentine scientist Francisco P. Moreno Moreno afterwards showed the scars to Theodore Roosevelt. In this instance, however, Moreno had been wearing a guanaco-hide poncho round his neck and head as protection against the cold [144] in Patagonia the guanaco is the puma's chief prey animal. [145] Another authenticated case occurred In 1997 in Iguazú National Park, northeast Argentina when the 20-month son of a ranger was killed by a female puma. Forensic analysis found specimens of the child's hair and clothing fibers in the animal's stomach. In this area the coatí is the puma's chief prey. Despite prohibitory signs, coatis are hand-fed by tourists in the park, causing unnatural approximation between cougars and humans. This particular puma had been raised in captivity and released into the wild. [146] In 2012 a 23-year-old woman was found dead in a mountainous area in Salta Province in northwest Argentina. Claw incisions, which severed a jugular vein, indicated that the attacker was a felid differential diagnosis ruled out other possible perpetrators. [a] There were no bite marks on the victim, who had been herding goats. [147] In 2019 in Córdoba Province an elderly man was badly injured by a puma after he attempted to defend his dog from it. [148]

Fatal attacks by other carnivores such as feral dogs can be misattributed to pumas without appropriate forensic knowledge. [149]

Livestock predation

During the early years of ranching, cougars were considered on par with wolves in destructiveness. According to figures in Texas in 1990, 86 calves (0.0006% of Texas's 13.4 million cattle and calves), 253 mohair goats, 302 mohair kids, 445 sheep (0.02% of Texas's 2 million sheep and lambs) and 562 lambs (0.04% of Texas's 1.2 million lambs) were confirmed to have been killed by cougars that year. [150] [151] In Nevada in 1992, cougars were confirmed to have killed nine calves, one horse, four foals, five goats, 318 sheep, and 400 lambs. In both reports, sheep were the most frequently attacked. Some instances of surplus killing have resulted in the deaths of 20 sheep in one attack. [152] A cougar's killing bite is applied to the back of the neck, head, or throat and the cat inflicts puncture marks with its claws usually seen on the sides and underside of the prey, sometimes also shredding the prey as it holds on. Coyotes also typically bite the throat but the work of a cougar is generally clean, while bites inflicted by coyotes and dogs leave ragged edges. The size of the tooth puncture marks also helps distinguish kills made by cougars from those made by smaller predators. [153]

Remedial hunting appears to have the paradoxical effect of increased livestock predation and complaints of human-puma conflicts. In a 2013 study the most important predictor of puma problems were remedial hunting of puma the previous year. Each additional puma on the landscape increased predation and human-puma complaints by 5%, but each additional animal killed on the landscape during the previous year increased complaints by 50%. The effect had a dose-response relationship with very heavy (100% removal of adult puma) remedial hunting leading to a 150% – 340% increase in livestock and human conflicts. [154] This effect is attributed to the removal of older pumas that have learned to avoid people and their replacement by younger males that react differently to humans. Remedial hunting enables younger males to enter the former territories of the older animals. [155] [156]

Predation on dogs

Predation by cougars on dogs "is widespread, but occurs at low frequencies" [157]

In mythology

The grace and power of the cougar have been widely admired in the cultures of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Inca city of Cusco is reported to have been designed in the shape of a cougar, and the animal also gave its name to both Inca regions and people. The Moche people represented the puma often in their ceramics. [158] The sky and thunder god of the Inca, Viracocha, has been associated with the animal. [159]

In North America, mythological descriptions of the cougar have appeared in the stories of the Hocąk language ("Ho-Chunk" or "Winnebago") of Wisconsin and Illinois [160] and the Cheyenne, amongst others. To the Apache and Walapai of Arizona, the wail of the cougar was a harbinger of death. [161] The Algonquins and Ojibwe believe that the cougar lived in the underworld and was wicked, whereas it was a sacred animal among the Cherokee. [162]

In sports

Several sports teams currently, or in the past, have used the cougar as the mascot or nickname for their team, although the name actually used has depended on the most popular regional name for the species. Among college sports teams, Brigham Young University in Utah and Washington State University in the northwestern United States, as well as the University of Houston in Texas use the cougar as their mascot. On Canada's prairies, Mount Royal University in Calgary and the University of Regina in Saskatchewan use the cougar as their mascot. The University of Vermont also uses the mascot, but uses the term "catamount" instead of cougar, as was traditional in the region where the school is located.

In professional hockey, the cougar was used by two Midwestern teams and one Northwestern team. The Chicago Cougars of the World Hockey Association operated from 1972 to 1975, while the Detroit Red Wings of the National Hockey League were called the Cougars from their inaugural season in 1926 until 1930. The Detroit Cougars were actually related to the Victoria Cougars of the Western Hockey League, which had won the Stanley Cup in 1925, in that when the Victoria Cougars, which had operated as the Aristocrats from 1918 to 1922 and as the Cougars from 1922 to 1926, disbanded in 1926, the owners of the newly formed Detroit club purchased the rights to many of the players of the Victoria club, and retained the Cougar nickname. The Florida Panthers of the National Hockey League use the name and image of the southeastern United States cougar subspecies, the Florida panther (the state animal), as its mascot.

The University of Pittsburgh in western Pennsylvania also uses the cougar as its sports mascot, and for many other clubs and organizations, but also uses the locally preferred name, "panther", corresponding to nearby geographic features (Panther Hollow and Panther Hollow Lake which got their names by 1885, 24 years before the University selected the name for its teams). [163] The University of Pittsburgh campus has about 20 physical representations of panthers or cougars at different locations around the campus, as well as four such statues on the Panther Hollow Bridge over Panther Hollow.

By contrast, Penn State University in central Pennsylvania uses the Nittany Lion as its mascot, "Nittany" being the name of a nearby mountain, as well as the valley in which the university is located, and "lion" being the abbreviated name of a stuffed mountain lion/cougar originally captioned as "Brush Lion" that was on display in a building at the university, and which is today housed in the Penn State All-Sports Museum. [164] The campus also has a Nittany Lion Shrine, featuring a large statue of a mountain lion on campus.

Many high schools also use the cougar as their sports team mascot.

The Sacramento Mountain Lions (2010–2012) of the United Football League used the California and southwestern United States regional name of the species. The Carolina Panthers of the National Football League have a black cat on their uniforms, as opposed to a brownish- or tawny-coloured cat, so it is most often presumed to represent a black panther, the black melanistic phase of either the jaguar (which actually only lived in the far Southwestern United States, and not the Southeastern United States where the Carolinas are located), or the leopard of Africa and Asia. A previously existing "Carolina" sports team, the Carolina Cougars, who operated in the American Basketball Association from 1969 to 1974, actually used the cougar, as opposed to the panther, as its nickname and mascot.

Most sports teams named the "Wildcats" use a logo similar to a bobcat, or in some cases in Canada, a Canada lynx, names which are often used for sports teams in their own right. By contrast, Wildcat Lager Beer brewed by Labatt, has always shown a picture of a cougar on its label.

A pumapard is a hybrid animal resulting from a union between a puma and a leopard. Whether born to a female puma mated to a male leopard or to a male puma mated to a female leopard, pumapards inherit a form of dwarfism. Those reported grew to only half the size of the parents. They have a puma-like long body (proportional to the limbs, but nevertheless shorter than either parent), but short legs. The coat is variously described as sandy, tawny or greyish with brown, chestnut or "faded" rosettes. [165]


100 Lion Names

We all want a pet lion. Sometimes, you are lucky enough to afford one. If you don’t have an actual pet lion, you can always have a stuffed animal lion. Or, you could get a dog that looks a lot like a lion. No matter what the case is, you will ultimately need lion names. We have compiled a list that helps you name your lion. You can consider the features of the lion, what it symbolizes or its attributes to create the best names. This list is just to help you get started, and you can always brainstorm a more unique name.

1. Maximilian: This is an awesome name for a lion.

2. Savannah: Because lions live on the savanna.

3. Paws: This is an adorable option.

4. Dillion: This name comes from a root word that means lion.

5. Zahara:This is a fun African name for lions.

6. Pumpkin: Lions are often a pumpkin-like color.

7. Lioness: Keep it simple with a name like lioness.

8. Kodjo: This is such a hip sounding name, and it comes from Africa like lions do.

9. Fang: This name comes from the lion’s fangs.

10. Africa: Lions live in Africa, so this is a good name choice.

11. Cupcake: This sounds like the name of a kitten and not a lion.

12. Whiskers: Cat names for a lion are a rather ironic choice.

13. Unika: This is an African name that works well for lions.

14. Amra: In a foreign language, this actually means lion.

15. Rori: This sounds awesome.

16. Sahara: This is a fun option.

17. Lionell: This comes from a root word that means lion.

18. Leonidas: This is based on the root word Leo, which means lion.

19. Muffin: This is another cat name that is an ironic choice for a lion.

20. Haider: This comes from a root word that means lion.

21. Namib: This is a cool sounding African name.

22. Surabi: This lion name comes from the popular Lion King film.

23. Kiara: This is a main character in Disney’s the Lion King.

24. Ari: This is an adorable name that is said to mean lion.

25. Namibia: This is actually the name of a country in Africa.

26. Vitani: This is another Lion King name.

27. Cubby: Because a lion has cubs.

28. Aurora: Cute!

29. Chephirah: This word means lion.

30. Sudan: This is a country in Africa, but it would also be a great name for a lion.

31. Nessie: This is a nickname based on the lion-ness.

32. Jake: This is a fun name.

33. Leo: Leo is the zodiac sign that is represented by the magnificent lion.

34. Romeo: Romeo needs his Juliet. You might need to get a second lion.

35. Boots: This is adorable name for a kitten. As the lion grows up, such a cute name
will seem ironic.

36. King: Because the lion is the king of the jungle.

37. Aaliyah: This is such a pretty name for a lion.

38. Nala: This was Simba’s girlfriend in the first Lion King movie.

39. Sprinkles: This is a kitten name that was stolen for baby lions.

40. Lexie: Lexie the Lion is an adorable moniker.

41. Luna: Cute!

42. Snickers: This is another great name for a lion who reminds you of a pet cat.

43. Ahadi: This lion name comes from a character in the Lion King.

44. Abbas: This is a beautiful sounding name that is actually said to mean lion.

45. Armani: This is another African name. It also happens to be the name of a major
fashion brand. Your lion will be stylish if you choose this lion name!

46 Hunter: Lions are known for being exceptionally good hunters.

47. Puma: This is another kind of big cat that has an unusually cool name.

48. Kazi: This is a hip sounding name that is African in origin.

49. Bathsheba: This is an awesome name for a lion.

50. Apollo: This name comes from the gods.

51. Jira: Some of the best lion names come to us from Africa.

52. Corin: This is another word for lion.

53. General: He certainly seems like a boss!

54. Vega: This is a cool name.

55. Scar: This was the evil uncle’s name in the first Lion King movie.

56. Morocco: This name for lion comes to us from the nation of Morocco.

57. Benroy: This pretty name would work well for a boy or girl lion.

58. Kion: Cute!

59. Kula: This is another Lion King name.

60. Simba: You remember Simba, right? He just couldn’t wait to be king!

61. Loki: This is a fun option.

62. Diata: Diata is said to mean lion in another language.

63. Zambia: This is another African nation that would make for a great name for a lion.

64. Leah: Leah sounds like a good lion name.

65. Scout: The little lion is scouting around for something.

66. Harley: This is a fun name for a lion.

67. Rebel: Hopefully, your pet lion does not rebel too much against you.

68. Sabrina: This is an adorable lion name.

69. Kimba: This means lion.

70. Kenya: This might be a country in Africa, but it could also double as a lion name.

71. Zeus: The name of the king of the Greek gods sounds very fitting for a lion.

72. Nova: Nice!

73. Beau: Beau means beautiful.

74. Kamili: This name for lions comes to us from Africa.

75. Ariel: Ariel is actually said to mean lion.

76. Mohatu: This is a name from the Lion King.

77. Bear: I think that this lion name is meant to be ironic.

78. Xena: Because your lioness is a warrior queen.

79. Queen: King of the jungle? What about queen of the jungle?

80. Cleopatra: Pretty.

81. Duchess: A lioness certainly acts like a duchess!

82. Zira: This name comes from the Lion King.

83. Mufasa: Mufasa was the name of Simba’s father.

84. Kalahari: This is one of the lion names that comes to us from Africa.

85. Gur: This means lion in another language.

86. Banana: Because lion’s have a banana-like color.

87. Sunny: This is another lion named based on the lion’s coloring.

88. Skip: Adorable.

89. Kitty: This name is meant to be ironic.

90. Mane Man: For when your main man has a mane.

91. Uru: This is a cute option.

92. Mao: This is the Chinese word for cat. It sounds suspiciously like the English, “Meow.”

93. Fluffy: Fluffy is meant to be ironic since this is actually the name of house cats
everywhere.

94. Sarafina: This is such a cute name.

95. Catnip: Cats like catnip. Do you think lions do, too?

96. Kitten: They might look like a kitten, but they probably won’t act like it.

97. Meow Mix: This comes from the name of a popular brand of cat food.

98. Kopa: This was the name of a lion in the Lion King.

99. Cuddles: Your lion might look cute, but I doubt that it would be a good idea to cuddle it.


Top 500 Most Popular Female Cat Names

Your new kitten is female. And you are finding for perfect female cat names. She may have many of the qualities of a girl. She may be gentle and quiet.

As she jumps on you or your furniture, you barely feel it when she lands. Maybe her little face is the cutest you’ve ever seen. Or she’s female, but lets you know she’s strong.

Maybe her personality tells you she’s cool. Or you’ve already had a few laughs from something your girl has done. Her appearance may demand a special name.

Take your time finding the perfect name. She’ll wear it for up to twenty years. Get started looking!


The Top 100 Most Punny and Funny Cat Names

This article was originally published on Cat Names City

Cats are the heart and soul of internet humor and you might be forgiven for thinking that the internet was created primarily as a place to share funny pictures of cats.

Whether you are just looking for a laugh or searching for funny cat names for a newly adopted kitten, this list of 100 punny and funny cat names is sure to put a smile on your face and help you to find the perfect goofy name for your lovable feline.

Cats give us so much joy and laughter so why not select funny cat names which will capture the personality of our kitten?

Here are 100 wacky, geeky, bizarre, unique, silly, punny and hilarious names for funny felines.

Funny Female Cat Names

1. Ali Cat
2. Ali McClaw
3. Angelicat
4. Cat Benatar
5. Catalie Portman
6. Catsy Cline
7. Chairwoman Miao
8. Cindy Clawford
9. Clawdia
10. Demi Meower
11. Empress
12. Fleas Witherspoon
13. Halley Purry
14. Hello Kitty
15. Isabellick
16. Jennifurr
17. Jessicat
18. Katy Purry
19. Kitty Poppins
20. Madam X
21. Meowly Cyrus
22. Miss Thang
23. Oprah Whisker
24. Pawdrey Hepburn
25. Puma Thurman
26. Samantail
27. Tabbytha
28. Veronicat
29. Whispurr

Funny Male Cat Names

30. Anderson Pooper
31. Bing Clawsby
32. Bob Meowerly
33. Butch Catsidy
34. Cat Damon
35. Cat Sajak
36. Cat Stevens
37. Catpernicus
38. Catrick Swayze
39. Chairman Meow
40. Dalai Clawma
41. David Meowie
42. Donald Tramp
43. Elvis Catsley
44. Fidel Catstro
45. Fuzz Aldrin
46. Genghis Cat
47. Hairy Potter
48. Jean Luc Picat
49. Jude Paw
50. Leonardo DaFuzzy
51. Lucifurr
52. Luke Skywhisker
53. Meowses
54. Mr. Meowgi
55. Notorious C.A.T
56. Oedipuss
57. Picatso
58. Santa Claws
59. The Great Catsby
60. William Shakespaw

Funny Unisex Cat Names

61. Cameow
62. Catapult
63. Catastrophe
64. Catillac
65. Cat-man-do
66. Catsanova
67. Catsup
68. Cat-titude
69. Catzilla
70. Clawsome
71. Domesticat
72. Ewok
73. Fuzzinator
74. Galacticat
75. Gigabyte
76. iCat
77. Just Kittin
78. Kitkat
79. Kit-teacup
80. Kittin around
81. Lickers
82. Megabyte
83. Meowsical
84. Miraclaw
85. Octopuss
86. Pawssanova
87. Puddy Tat
88. Purrfect
89. Purrson
90. Terabyte
91. The Boss
92. Thunder Paws
93. Tweedledee
94. Tweedledum
95. Vegetarian
96. Whisker
97. Wigglebutt
98. Winky
99. Your Highness
100. Your Majesty

Have some more funny cat names to add? Share them in the comments section below!

Looking for more? See the original article for a longer list of funny cat names.


Watch the video: Top 50 Best Black Cat Name Ideas for 2020 (October 2021).

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